Glimpse of different childhood in India

Childhood is a span ranging from birth to adolescence. In India age of a person is to be a child has always been the topic of debate. The Census of India considers children to be any person below the age of 14. Biologically childhood is the stage between infancy and adolescence.
•Factors affecting childhood
?Diversity and culture
Child development is a dynamic, interactive process. Every child is unique in interacting with the world around them, and what they invoke and receive from others and the environment also shapes how they think and behave. Children growing up in different cultures receive specific inputs from their environment. For that reason, there’s a vast array of cultural differences in children’s beliefs and behaviour. This early exposure affects the way children attend to themselves or to their relationship with others – forming their self-image and identity.
?Type of family
During early childhood, a parent's attitudes and values can be passed on to the child. During this time their self-concept is forming, and can be heavily influenced by their parents, according to Heather Weiss, Founder and Director of the Harvard Family Research Project. They can acquire skills that are the basic foundation for learning throughout childhood. Therefore, a strong support system in early childhood can greatly affect their development.
Supportive, Loving Family
Nurturing relationships in a family are critical for the healthy development of a child. If a child feels safe, secure, and loved in their family, it helps with the formation of their self-esteem and well-being. It can also lead to a child who is more socially competent and has better communication skills than a child who does not feel these family connections, according to Weiss.
Parental Involvement
Parental participation in children's activities, like outdoor exploration or reading books together, has been shown to lead to a more social child, says Weiss. Children who engage in play activities with their parents jump right into games when they start school and show more independent behaviour in those situations. Having their parents show an interest in their activities develops a strong sense of self in the child.
?Urban/Rural
According to UNICEF the definition of an “urban zone” differs from one country to another and is constantly revised. An urban zone is characterized by one or more of the following components: administrative criterion or political frontiers, population density, economic function and the presence of specific urban features (roads, pavement, electric lighting, and sewage systems).
Rural zones include the entire population, territory and other resources of the countryside – in other words, the areas located outside of the large, urbanized centres.
Child malnutrition
Malnutrition is a common pathological condition in both rural and urban areas.
Its short- and long-term effects (such as late mental development, greater exposure to infectious diseases, and risk of chronic illness in adulthood) are extensive.
Access to health services
The condition of children in rural zones is unstable since health care is a privilege that is only accessible for a small affluent portion of the population. Because of this harsh lack of resources, the quality of health for impoverished children remains very low.
Studies of the urban setting demonstrate elevated levels of infant mortality that are principally caused by large concentrations of poverty and insufficient services that one finds in the savage urban settlements like the slums and shanty towns.
Child education
The discrepancies in child education between urban and rural areas are important. Children living in rural zones experience a serious lack of education in comparison with children in urban zones.
Violence
Urban centres experience an unprecedented growth due to a rise in births and the rural exodus. In a world that is more and more urbanized, violence has reached epidemic proportions due to various factors that come into play.
?Family instability and family income 
Family instability has been linked to poorer child outcomes, particularly with regard to behaviour. Children whose parents have divorced have more behaviour problems than those in intact families; children living in stepparent and blended families also tend to have more behaviour problems, though the effect sizes are smaller and the relationship is less consistent. Overall, prior research has shown that children who have experienced any kind of family change have poorer behavioural outcomes than children in stable, two-biological-parent families.
•Objectives: -
?To understand the census of street children in New Delhi.
?To understand the socio-economic, educational, family background of street children.
?To understand street children’s aspirations and their current conditions.
•Dimensions of Childhood
1.Rich children
In Western culture. high society, also called in some contexts simply "the Society", is a category of people deemed to have greater wealth, social status or prestige than the rest of the population. It includes their related affiliations, social events and practices.
•Low class society/ labour class
Lower class (occasionally described as working class) are those employed in low-paying wage jobs with very little economic security. The term "lower class" also refers to persons with low income.
•Orphan children
An orphan is a child whose parents are dead or have abandoned them permanently. In common usage, only a child who has lost both parents is called an orphan. When referring to animals, only the mother's condition is usually relevant. If she has gone, the offspring is an orphan, regardless of the father's condition.
•STREET CHILDREN
A street child is someone “for whom the street has become his or her habitual abode and/or source of livelihood; and who is inadequately protected, supervised, or directed by responsible adults.’’
•Preparation of Report and analysis
My case study is on the street children and their individual differences.

Workshop on “Upholding Ethics and Integrity”: My major takeaways

On 18th September 2019, a Workshop on “Upholding Ethics and Integrity” was conducted in ET Lab by the B.Ed department of KIHEAT, which was facilitated by Mrs. Preeti Sinha student councellor and personality trainer. She proved to be an excellent Counsellor and an experienced guide from the experiences she shared and the way she expressed herself as an active and lively speaker who held our attention for quite some time. The sessions were not at all boring. In fact, time flew so fast that, in the feedback form, I even mentioned that we needed extended sessions in such Workshops, so that we could learn more from skilled Counsellors like her. 
The major takeaways from the sessions were,
1.  How to make the classes more lively with different activities. I need to save these activities and research for more variety activities to make my classes more effective and lively in future when I become a teacher.
2.  The major ethical issues which today’s children face and tips to overcome them were discussed in detail, which helped me understand that these are the issues that I would have to face with my students. I would like to learn about more experiences and how they were effectively dealt with so that I don’t get panicked when faced with reality.
3.  Each and every person should be treated with so much respect. The way in which all my batchmates showed their talents by acting and speaking and also drawing showed me how gifted and different each person is. Through the Caricature Activity I understood that I need to do a thorough SWOT Analysis so as to highlight my best features.
4.  Moreover, I was amazed by the speech delivered by Charlie Chaplin to the soldiers. The funniest comedian of all times, who makes us laugh always, how powerfully he conveyed the message of how they should help each other and liberate the nation! It showed that each of us have that inner power, which can shake the world.
5.  Another tip I took was to keep myself updated about the circulars updated by CBSE. Being a prospective teacher, it is something which is very important.
6.  On the personal level, the major lesson I learned, and would like to put into practice is that I should learn to deliver my words effectively without the help of paper or chits. This was a tip given by Principal, Dr. Priti Srivastava at the last in her vote of thanks speech. 
To conclude, I am looking forward to the next Workshop, as the first Workshop was very interesting and the messages were effectively communicated. I would love to attend such workshops in the coming days, so as to sharpen my skills as a teacher and guide for our coming generation.

DIGITAL EDUCATION ICTs Initiatives in School and Teacher Education

A lecture was organised in Kamal Institute of higher Education on 20/12/18 at 10:30 am. It was a 2 hour lecture based on the different initiatives taken by government for enhancing ICT based education at school level. The program started with the facilitation of Dr Indu kumar ma’am by our principal ma’am Dr. Priti Srivastava. 
Indu ma’am started with a warm introduction and told us that she is heading NROER NCERT. She started with a small interaction with pupil teachers to know about our knowledge about ICT and ET(Educational technology). Then she moved on with her presentation where first slide she started with was EDUCATIONAL SCENARIO in India. Each slide was well designed as per her work, different maps, charts; tables, mind maps and various kin of digital resources were used. In the first slide she told us about No. of schools in India and No. of students enrolled in them and how quality of education is there in schools. Nearby 50% of schools in India are under ICT@Schools Scheme. In the next slide it was about the most primary and major discrimination which happens in India especially in the field of education and that is on the basis of GENDER. How gender effects the enrollment of students in the schools and also different of urban and rural area? Next she moved to the brief explanation of initiatives of government through a well designed chart.Starting from 1972 when ET scheme was launched then moving to 1983 INSAT and than in 1984 when class projects were launched by government, in 1986 NPE and after the huge difference of 6 years in 1992 NPA launched. Then after a huge gap in 2004 ICT@ School NME-ICT was started. Taking us through these years from past she took us to the present schemes launched, in 2017 SWAYAM MOOCs, SWAYAM prabha and in 2018 Samagra siksha National Digital Library. In the very next slide she gave us brief information about the envisions of Digital India Campaign 2015 in which Digital infrastructure, Governance and services on demand and Digital Empowerment of citizens were the main components. Then she briefed about some digital initiatives at national level such as DIKSHA, ICT curriculum, NROER which provide digital content for education at school level.
She then explained the Curriculum for ICT in Education. Major components she talked about were:-
• Connecting with world
• Possibilities in Education
• Interacting with ICT
• Creating with ICT
• Connecting with each other
• Reaching out to people
In next slide of her presentation she talked about an Application called PARAKH which is a mobile app to collect data/information for evaluating the use of ICT in govt and govt aided schools. And then Swayam site was discussed which is a anytime learning site.
Next to be discussed was different types of resources on NROER i.e:-
? Collections
? Images
? Videos
? Audios
? Documents
? Interactives
She also briefed about Resources available on e-pathshala i.e various e-books, epubs, audios, videos etc
During her lecture she made us famiiar with pro active participation of different states of India. She said that many states like Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra etc are the pro active states which are behaving positively towards ICT.

Enrichment Lecture Teaching skills and Feedback mechanism

On 4th February 2019 Kamal Institute of Higher Education and Advance Technology organised an extension lecture on the topic Teaching skills and Feedback mechanism by Prof. MC Sharma. As we are going to become a teacher so it is very important for us to develop various teaching skills in ourselves. We should also be aware with the feedback mechanism from the students as well as the teacher examinee.
In his lecture Sir covered all the aspects of teaching skills, he told us about what it is? And it’s types which includes
o Introduction to the lesson
o Question delivery and distribution
o Response management
o Explaining
o Illustrations with example related to real life or the environment and it should be relevant.
o Using teaching aids such as charts, models etc.
o Stimulus variation such as body movements, gestures
o Reinforcement by appreciating
o Use of black board which is very important and assignments
He makes us understand all these types with his real life experiences and examples. He has lot of experience in his field of teaching and examining. He shared all his techniques and thoughts which he has used being a student or being a interviewee. 
He then told us about the importance of feedback in teaching. It is one of the most important aspects of micro-teaching. It helps the teacher to do well in further similar situations, rectify their problem. Prof. MC Sharma shared many stories regarding the skills and feedback mechanism so that we can understand it completely.
The session was ended with the question answer round. Many students have some queries they asked and got the relevant answers. Overall the lecture was very helpful for us. We have learned a lot about how we can enhance our skills

EDUCATION IN ABROAD WITH IELTS

As our education system depend on the globalisation so the before getting enrolled in any university one gets stuck with the questions like where do I study abroad? What do I want to study: Science, engineering, Business or Finance? How much money is required? What are the intakes available? And to answer all such questions A workshop on “Education in abroad” with the help of IELTS (The International English language testing System) was organised by the Kamal Institute of Higher Education & Advance technology on 7th sept. 2018. The workshop was taken by representatives of IDP (International Development Programme), a global leader in international education service.
They started the workshop with introduction of IDP, which helps an international student study in English speaking countries. They help students to get connected with the right course in the right institution and the right country. They also told us that they have been operating for close to 50 years and there are more than 38 universities in their programme.
They informed us that in order to enrol in any under graduate programme, post graduate programme or diploma one has to appear in IELTS, the world’s most popular high stakes English language proficiency test for study, work and migration. For diploma one has to score 6.5 out of 9 and for post graduation 7 out of 9. IDP helps to get admission in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, US and UK. 
First of all one is supposed to select the course and University then check the eligibility, if eligible appear for IELTS and   qualifying the exam. Get Your Test scores, also the statement of purpose, Letter of recommendation, academic transcript etc. Arrange your passport and visa well before the time of reporting. They informed us that Universities also provide financial supports like scholarships, grants, loans, Financial awards etc.
At the end of session they informed us that there is “IDP’s UK, US, CANADA AND NEW ZEALAND EDUCATION FAIR” on 22 September from 11 am to 5 pm at Hotel Le Meridien, Windsor Place, New Delhi and entry fee is applicable. Anyone can attend the fair and enhance their knowledge on studying in abroad and get the benefit.
The workshop was really helpful for all of us.

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